The report recommended that OMB update the guidelines and that the Department of Defense and the Department of State update some of their policies and practices as well. Despite the reviews that pointed to shortcomings, the State Department is proud of the changes it has made and the work it continues to do, a top official told Devex.
Foreign Assistance Resources. Obviously data for data sake means nothing. So why do we need data? We need to give people a better solution and then you have to train them to the better solution. The differences between the two databases are vast, said Sally Paxton, the U.
Such a disparity calls into question the reliability of the information on foreignassistance. The concern is not only that the information presented is sometimes vastly different, but also that having these two platforms is a waste of resources. The State Department is trying to make sure they sync the data without losing anything, Richardson added. There is room for improvement at the various agencies, although development experts repeatedly came back to the need for the growing pool of data to be put to use. In some ways the legislation has been a success.
One way is by creating an agency-wide learning agenda and establishing a function to do agency-wide learning and project management. Now that there are more robust evaluations and accessible data, agencies such as USAID should not only be using evaluations to make better decisions internally, but it should also be telling more stories about programs that are working, said Lori Rowley, the director of global food security and aid effectiveness at the Lugar Center.
In some cases, data needs to be presented in a usable fashion where it is not; in other cases, the systems for learning have not yet been developed or incorporated into agency and project workflows, several experts told Devex. Although in recent times Israel and the Arab Gulf states have coalesced against a commonly perceived Iranian threat, U.
More from Foreign Policy. The most effective aid programs support leaders in developing countries as they take action to lift themselves and their communities out of poverty. While these are important aspects of a holistic aid portfolio, our studies suggest that policymakers should at the very least consider expanding the scope of health aid to countries that pose a higher security threat; such assistance may, in fact, facilitate other peace and stability efforts already underway. Additionally, it discusses current evaluation policies and issues for Congress. Agency for International Development and its contractors , the U.
The Trump Administration reportedly has agreed to enter into preliminary talks with the UAE on procurement of the F Retired Israeli Defense Force Colonel Shimon Arad has been a vocal critic of selling the F to the UAE, saying: "The release of Fs to the Gulf states is a fundamental military game-changer that, in combination with the advanced fourth generation fighters and the tens of thousands of sophisticated munitions, will cancel out Israel's QME. Since , overall U. MOUs are not legally binding agreements like treaties, and thus do not require Senate ratification.
Also, Congress may accept or change year-to-year assistance levels for Israel, or provide supplemental appropriations. Nevertheless, past MOUs have significantly influenced the terms of U. Under the terms of that agreement, Israel was explicitly permitted to continue spending up to The agreement stated that "Both sides acknowledge that these funding levels assume continuation of adequate levels for U.
At a signing ceremony at the State Department on September 14, , representatives of the U. Figure 1. Figure 2.
Military Aid to Israel over Decades. Notes: Figures included Foreign Military Financing only. Missile defense funds are not included. Figures are not adjusted for inflation. Some Israeli officials have argued that the gradual phase-out of OSP will shrink Israel's defense sector and lead to job losses. Israel is the largest recipient of U. Foreign Military Financing.
Since FY P. Federal Reserve Bank. Israel is the first international operator of the F Joint Strike Fighter, the Department of Defense's fifth-generation stealth aircraft considered to be the most technologically advanced fighter jet ever made.
Israel is installing Israeli-made C4 command, control, communications, computers systems in the Fs it receives, and calls these customized Fs " Adirs. As part of the F deal, the United States agreed to make reciprocal purchases of equipment known as "offsets" from Israeli defense companies.
As of , Israeli firms had received more than 1 billion dollars' worth of business from Lockheed Martin to build components for the F The United States Army also has awarded a contract to an Elbit subsidiary in the United States to supply helmet mounted displays for U. As mentioned above, the United States has authorized the sale of up to 75 Fs to Israel, which will have acquired 50 of the aircraft by Some Israelis have argued that the FI model is cheaper to operate, can carry a heavier weapons payload, and has a wider range than the F It also is equipped with the Trophy active defense system to protect against incoming projectiles.
During Operation Protective Edge July against Hamas, several Israeli soldiers were killed while riding in an older APC model that was struck by rocket propelled grenade fire. After , Israel increased its production of the Namer. Table 2. Selected Notified U. Foreign Military Sales to Israel Notes: All figures and dates are approximate; blank entries indicate that data is unknown or not applicable.
The Excess Defense Articles EDA program provides a means by which the United States can advance foreign policy objectives—assisting friendly and allied nations through provision of equipment in excess of the requirements of its own defense forces. This program, managed by DSCA, enables the United States to reduce its inventory of outdated equipment by providing friendly countries with necessary supplies at either reduced rates or no charge.
Congress and successive Administrations have demonstrated strong support for joint U. The range spans from short-range missiles and rockets fired by nonstate actors, such as Hamas and Hezbollah, to mid- and longer-range ballistic missiles in Syria's and Iran's arsenals. Before Israel developed its active defense network of missile defense systems Iron Dome, David's Sling, and Arrow , it relied upon the supply of U. In , Israel purchased its first advanced weapons system from the United States Hawk antiaircraft missiles.
At the time, Israeli officials considered the acquisition a milestone in the U. In , Israel's Patriot missile batteries shot down two unmanned aircraft launched from the Gaza Strip and also intercepted combat and unmanned aircraft launched from Syria. These intercepts marked the first time Patriot batteries in Israel had been used in 20 years. Since , Israel has used Patriots to intercept Syrian jet fighters and drones that have penetrated Israeli airspace. Iron Dome is a short-range antirocket system intercept range of 2.
Iron Dome's targeting system and radar are designed to fire its Tamir interceptors only at incoming projectiles that pose threats to the area being protected generally, strategically important sites, including population centers ; it is not configured to fire on rockets headed toward unpopulated areas. Israel can move Iron Dome batteries as threats change.
Currently, Israel has ten Iron Dome batteries deployed throughout the country, and each battery is designed to defend a square mile populated area. Iron Dome was declared operational in early Between and , Israel upgraded Iron Dome's various tracking and firing mechanisms. A commander of the Qassam Brigades, the military wing of Hamas, claimed during the May conflict that Hamas had "overcome the so-called Iron Dome by adopting the tactic of firing dozens of rockets in a single burst…. The high intensity of fire and the great destructive ability of the missiles… caused great losses and destruction to the enemy.
Even if you manage to hit every incoming missile, there's Newton's Law - even the debris must come down. Figure 3. Iron Dome Launcher. Because Iron Dome was developed by Israel alone, Israel initially retained proprietary technology rights to it. The United States and Israel have had a decades-long partnership in the development and co-production of other missile defense systems such as the Arrow.
Congress then called for Iron Dome technology sharing and co-production with the United States. Ongoing U. Consequently, Congress directed the Army to take interim steps to procure additional systems. Army to deploy an interim missile defense capability fixed-site, cruise missile defense capability and, if so, to deploy additional batteries. In response to this mandate, the U. The Army justified the purchase by referencing Iron Dome's high interception rate as well as the Tamir interceptor's low cost relative to existing U. In March , the United States and Israeli governments signed a co-production agreement to enable the manufacture of components of the Iron Dome system in the United States, while also providing the U.
After Israel's summer conflict with Hamas and other Palestinian militant groups, there was high Israeli demand for additional Tamir interceptors, Iron Dome batteries, and the external financing to procure these items. With U. In August , Israel and the United States officially signed a "project agreement" to codevelop the David's Sling system.
David's Sling uses Raytheon's Stunner missile for interception, and each launcher can hold up to 16 missiles. In April , Israel declared David's Sling operational and, according to one analysis, "two David's Sling batteries are sufficient to cover the whole of Israel. Israel first used David's Sling in July At the time, Syrian regime forces were attempting to retake parts of southern Syria as part of the ongoing conflict there. During the fighting, Asad loyalists fired two SS Tochka or 'Scarab' tactical ballistic missiles at rebel forces, but the missiles veered into Israeli territory.
David's Sling fired two Stunner interceptors, but the final impact point of the Syrian missiles changed mid-flight, and Israel ordered one of the interceptors to self-destruct; the other most likely landed in Syrian territory. Figure 4. David's Sling Launches Stunner Interceptor. In June , the United States and Israel signed a co-production agreement for the joint manufacture of the Stunner interceptor.
Some interceptor components may be built in Tucson, Arizona, by Raytheon.
The United States has funded just under half of the annual costs of the development of the Arrow Weapon System, with Israel supplying the remainder. One Arrow II battery is designed to protect large swaths of Israeli territory. In March , media sources reported the first known use of the Arrow II, when they said that it successfully intercepted a Syrian surface-to-air missile SAM that had been fired on an Israeli jet returning to Israel from an operation inside Syria.
Table 3. The total U. The system became operational in in Israel and has been tested successfully. Since , Israel and the United States have conducted a joint biennial ballistic missile defense exercise, called Juniper Cobra, to work on integrating their weapons, radars, and other systems. Citing a potential nuclear threat from Iran, Israel has sought a missile interceptor that operates at a higher altitude and greater range than the original Arrow systems.