All the sessions were at the same time of the day 16h to 18h to avoid HR circadian rhythm variation[ 26 ]. The experiment was performed during the first part of the competitive season from the third week of November. HR recorded during the 2 vs. Likewise, the results indicated that HR values were significantly higher during the 3 vs.
RPE scores during the 2 vs. The results indicated also that RPE scores were significantly higher during the 2 vs. The results indicated also that [La-] concentrations were significantly higher during the 2 vs.
The aim of this study was to examine the physiological responses of 3 football SSG formats i. Moreover, the present study also showed that the higher physiological response to SSG was observed during 3 vs. For the 2 vs. To the best of our knowledge, only the study of Halouani et al. SG-SSG on young soccer players using 3 vs.
When interacting with others online, it is common sense to never divulge personal information, both for players' personal safety as well as account safety. Reilly and Ball, [ 34 ] reported an increase in RPE and[La-] when dribbling a ball for several minutes, probably due to the extra muscular activity required to control the ball and to propel it forward. Awards will be made on-site immediately following the events where possible. You will then be asked to select the area of the game you believe to be affected by the bug and then given information on currently known issues and issues which are often mistaken for bugs. In deals rummy, the winner wins all the chips at the end of each deal.
As observed in the present study, the authors reported a higher SSG intensity i. These findings could be explained by: i the larger area to be covered during the SB-SSG in both the defensive and the offensive phases, ii a higher motivation during the SB-SSG format i. The present study confirmed the results of Halouani et al.
The results of the present study, also, showed a higher HR values during the 3 vs. In agreement, Dellal et al. The authors reported that the higher values of HRreserve were recorded during 3 vs. Recently, Aguiar et al. Therefore, using the 3 vs. The results of the present study confirmed those of Dellal et al. In this study, 2 vs. These results are similar to those previously reported by Hill-Hass et al. This suggests that RPE and [La-] increases when the number of players decline. In this context, Hill-Haas et al. Also, Rampinini et al. One of the reasons for these findings is when the pitch size per player is increased, the intensity and the involvement in the game might be decreased [ 12 ].
Also, another explanation for the reduction in RPE and [La-] with the increasing number of players may be the decreasing interaction with colleagues and opponents [ 22 ]. Moreover, reducing the number of players increases the RPE and [La-], this fact may be explained by the greater need of players to be moving to create several passing opportunities, because the reduction in the number of players on the field reduces the number of possible solutions and lowers team ball possession but increases the interaction of each player with the ball or opponents [ 32 ].
In contrast, the higher values of RPE and [La-] were found in 2 vs.
Aguiar et al. In this study, the authors concluded that 2 vs.
However, concerning HRmax responses, the 3-a-side formats elicited a higher percentage than the 2- 4- and 5-a-sidegames The present study also found 3-a-side HR responses to be significantly higher than those in 2-a-side and 4-a-side formats. The reason of this finding could be that 3-a-side have a lower relative pitch ratio per player than 2-a-side.
When the pitch size per player is increased, the intensity and the involvement in the game might be decreased[ 12 ]. Moreover, technical actions such as the number of ball contacts may increase RPE and [La-] concentration, especially in SSGs including fewer players[ 12 ]. Capranica et al.
This appears to support the present results as players touched and dribbled the ball more often during the 2 vs. Reilly and Ball, [ 34 ] reported an increase in RPE and[La-] when dribbling a ball for several minutes, probably due to the extra muscular activity required to control the ball and to propel it forward. Although continuous dribbling applied by Reilly and Ball [ 34 ] is not the same as the total number of dribbles and ball contacts recorded in this study, the higher number of dribbles and ball contacts could have partly contributed to a higher exercise intensity observed in 2 vs.
Furthemore, this increase during 2 vs. Available research has identified increases in frequency of technical actions in SSGs with fewer players [ 35 ]. This quickness of actions reduces the rest period of players [ 4 ]. In the same context, Dellal et al. These high-intensity actions are suggested to be linked to the greater technical difficulty combined to the possible lower duration to perform particular technical actions.
Whether you follow the rules that came with the game or make up your own rules, be sure that everyone agrees to them before the game begins. It requires self-regulation by the children who play, so they can successfully follow the rules and curb their own personal ego needs. Games with rules are often.
The players have to perform the offensive actions passes, dribbling and strikes at the goal and the defensive actions tackling and pressure on the players who have the ball more quickly and at a greater frequency[ 8 ]. This fact influence the recovery time of each player during the game and reduce this period in comparison with 4 vs. Moreover, this study also showed that the higher values of HR were observed during 3 vs. This information is useful for coaches because they can modify or introduce rules in the SSG formats to adjust them to the competition demands.
The authors declared no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Biol Sport v. Biol Sport.
Published online Jan 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. E-mail: rf.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Open in a separate window. Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge all the athetes who participated in this study. Conflict of interests The authors declared no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this manuscript. Reilly T. An ergonomics model of the soccer training process.
J Sports Sci. Heart rate responses and technical-tactical aspects of official 5-a-side youth soccer matches played on clay and artificial turf. J Strength Cond Res. Wein H. Developing Youth Soccer Players. Champaign, IL: Human Kin; Kelly DM, Drust B. The effect of pitch dimensions on heart rate responses and technical demands of small-sided soccer games in elite players. J Sci Med Sport. Williams K, Owen A. The impact of player numbers on the physiological responses to small sided games [abstract] J Sports Sci and Med.
Heart rate responses and technical comparison between small- vs. Acute physiological responses and time—motion characteristics of two small-sided training regimes in youth soccer players. The game unknown. If you think about The Game, you lose The Game.